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Industries   Oil & Gas LNG

Measuring LNG…without vaporization

Improve availability and productivity

Difficulties with reliable vaporization required to convert LNG to the gas phase prior to GC analysis cause uncertainties in the measurement of the energy content of LNG. In addition, it is very difficult to validate such systems on actual LNG samples due to the volume and cost of such measurements, and the challenges in obtaining reference standard LNG for such testing. Kaiser Raman technology allows the quality of LNG (MMBtu/scf) to be measured with higher precision and certainty than ever before by measuring the composition of LNG in the cryogenic liquid phase, avoiding any need to vaporize the sample.

0 USD/shipload

improvement in the uncertainty of total energy involved in a ship-to-shore baseload LNG custody transfer measurement using Kaiser Raman technology compared to conventional vaporizer/GC systems.

Sutherland, W.S., “Laser Precision Measurement”, LNG Industry March 2019, 89-94

How we can help

A typical custody transfer of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) from ship-to-shore or shore-to-ship can involve nearly 275,000 cubic meters of product, at a total transfer value of over $13 million USD with LNG prices as of October of 2020. LNG value is determined by both the volume (m3) and energy content (MMBtu).

  • Non-destructive optical measurement of LNG in the process pipe or fast loop
  • Require no columns, valves, or carrier gases, improving analyzer availability and reducing OPEX
  • Measures up to 4 streams simultaneously, for faster, more efficient, process control
  • Calibration Transfer using industry standard ASTM practices and NIST standard reference materials
  • Measure streams over 300 meters from the analyzer base unit, at the speed of light, using cryogenic Raman optical immersion probes and industrial optical fiber cables

Applications

How certain are you about your LNG quality in a custody transfer?

Measurement of the energy content of LNG is currently measured using gas chromatographs. However, the cryogenic LNG sample has to be vaporized prior to measurement. Incomplete vaporization or pre-vaporization often results in higher uncertainty that the gas composition is consistently representative of the LNG composition. Vaporizers often incur high maintenance costs to maintain operation.

Learn more here:
LNG – Custody transfer

Our expertise in the field

Using Kaiser Raman technology to measure LNG as a cryogenic liquid removes the uncertainty in the value of the cargo transferred by more than 1000 percent, resulting in a more precise and reliable measurement of the value of the cargo.

  • Non-destructive optical measurement of LNG in the process pipe or fast loop
  • Require no columns, valves, or carrier gases, improving analyzer availability and reducing OPEX
  • Measures up to 4 streams simultaneously, for faster, more efficient process control
  • Calibration Transfer using industry standard ASTM practices and NIST standard reference materials
  • Measure streams over 300 meters from the analyzer base unit, at the speed of light, using cryogenic Raman optical immersion probes and industrial optical fiber cables

A better way to bunker LNG

The use of LNG as a fuel for ships is increasing, in part due to the new IMO MARPOL lower sulfur emission standards. LNG bunker ships, which provide ship-to-ship transfer, are becoming more common. Providing reliable measurement of the quality of the cargo transferred is an essential part of the bunker delivery note for the transaction.

Sreekumar, P., Sutherland, S, Ph.D., Bacani, D., “The measurement of success”, LNG Industry November 2020, 45-48

Hydrogen recycle female worker

Our expertise in the field

Our Rack-mounted Kaiser Raman analyzers for custody transfer can be easily installed on bunker ships, located in the control room or instrument room, and connected to the ship control computer, providing reliable and robust measurements of LNG either transferred from the bunker ship to the receiving ship, or for LNG loaded onto the bunker ship from an on-shore facility.

  • Ease of installation with a fiberoptic cable run from the analyzer to the optical probe inserted in the transfer pipe
  • High availability and no consumables results in low OPEX

Monitor LNG truck loading…without the wait

Transportation of LNG via truck is an essential part of the natural gas infrastructure as a cost-effective means of delivering natural gas to customers who do not have access to the natural gas pipeline infrastructure. These facilities transfer LNG as a ‘batch mode’ process, with each transfer taking 30 to 90 minutes. Custody transfer measurement systems for these facilities must be ready to go on short notice, and provide ‘instant on’ capabilities, ready to measure at a moment’s notice. Traditional vaporizer systems require up to 2 hours exposure to LNG to stabilize before accurate measurements can begin.

Oil & Gas tank

Our expertise in the field

Kaiser Raman analyzers are ready to make measurements as soon as a truck-loading commences and provide high quality measurements immediately after steady-state flow is reached. The analyzers can be integrated into the facility control room, and measurements can be initiated, and results displayed, directly in the CTMS system.

  • Virtually no warm-up time to make custody transfer measurements
  • No vaporizing can reduce uncertainty by over 1000 %
  • Direct liquid analysis increases availability and reduces OPEX

Process flow schematic of the liquification, transfer, and transport of natural gas

The majority of natural gas (NG) is transported in gaseous form via onshore or offshore gas pipelines. For stranded gas reserves or long transport distances, it becomes more economical to liquefy the natural gas prior to transportation or storage. The liquefaction of natural gas to LNG often involves the use of a mixed refrigerant (MR) process, and monitoring the composition of the MR is an essential for efficient plant operation. Once liquefied, LNG transfer to ships or trucks involves custody transfer, and monitoring the BTU of the LNG is critical to ensuring that contractual obligations are met. Once LNG arrives at its destination, it is regasified and often requires quality adjustment to ensure the resulting NG meets local pipeline specifications. Numbers on the diagram represent measurement points that are typically analyzed in real-time for control and optimization of the main process units.

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